Sample Self-Determination Assessments
AIR Self-Determination Scale and User Guide. The main purpose of the AIR Self-Determination Scale and User Guide (Wolman, Campeau, DuBois, Mithaug, & Stolarski, 1994) is to "provide an easy-to-use, tool to assess and develop strategies for improving a student's level of self-determination" (p. 9). The scale was designed to be used with all school-age students, grades K through 12+. It can be used to (a) assess and develop a profile of a student's level of self-determination, (b) determine strengths and areas for improvement to increase self-determination, (c) identify goals and objectives, and (d) develop strategies to increase a student's capacities and opportunities. The scale measures capacity (i.e., ability, knowledge, and perceptions) and opportunity (at school and at home) related to three components of self-determination: thinking, doing, and adjusting. A five-point Likert-type scale (1 = never; 5 = always) is used to rate students and environments on self-determination components. There are three forms of the scale. The educator form is intended for use by teachers. The student form can be used by students who have the requisite reading and comprehension skills. The parent form is intended for use with parents who could benefit by considering the self-determination of their sons or daughters. The forms were field-tested with students between the ages of 6 and 25. Further information about the AIR Self-Determination Scale can be obtained from American Institutes for Research, P.O. Box 1113, Palo Alto, CA 94302. Telephone: 650-493-3550 firstname.lastname@example.org
The Arc's Self-Determination Scale. The Arc's Self-Determination Scale (Wehmeyer, 1995) is a student self-report measure of self-determination designed for use by adolescents with disabilities, particularly students with mild cognitive and learning disabilities. The 72-item scale measures overall self-determination and the domain areas of autonomy, self-regulation, psychological empowerment, and self-realization. The scale includes four-point Likert-type scale items, story completion items (i.e., the beginning and ending of a story are provided and the student writes the middle section), items that require the student to identify goals and break the goals into smaller steps, and items that require students to make a choice between two options. The scale can be completed by the student independently or it can be read to the student. The scale can be administered to 15 students at one time, provided students' reading abilities warrant this and there are enough persons to provide necessary support to students during scale administration. For further information on The Arc's Self-Determination Scale contact The Arc of the United States, 500 East Border Street, Suite 300, Arlington, TX 76010. Telephone: 817/261-6003. This scale may also be ordered from The Council for Exceptional Children, 1920 Association Drive, Reston, VA 20191-1589. Telephone: 888/232-7323.
ChoiceMaker Self-Determination Assessment. The ChoiceMaker Self-Determination Assessment (Martin & Marshall, 1996) is a curriculum based assessment and planning tool intended for use with middle to high school students with emotional or behavior disabilities and mild to moderate learning problems. It may be adapted for older elementary students or for students with more severe learning problems. The ChoiceMaker assessment measures student skills and opportunities at school in three areas: choosing goals, expressing goals, and taking action. The assessment has three parts. The first part is a rating scale of student skills related to self-determination and opportunities at school to perform each of the self-determination-related skills. Student skills and opportunities are rated on a scale from 0 to 4. The second part of the assessment is an assessment profile. The student skills and school opportunities ratings are recorded on a profile where differences in scores are more readily apparent. The third part of the assessment, the ChoiceMaker Curriculum Matrix, provides objectives and corresponding goals for consideration as teaching priorities. Further information on the ChoiceMaker Self-Determination Assessment can be obtained from Sopris West Publishers, 1140 Boston Avenue, Longmont, CO 80501. Telephone: 800/547-6747.
The Self-Determination Assessment Battery. The Self-Determination Assessment Battery (Hoffman, Field, & Sawilowsky, 1995) measures cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors related to self-determination. These factors are assessed from the perspectives of the student, teacher, and parent. The battery is based on the Field and Hoffman model of self-determination. The model focuses on those variables related to self-determination that are within the individual's control and are potential targets for instructional intervention. The model contains five components: Know Yourself, Value Yourself, Plan, Act, and Experience Outcomes and Learn. There are five instruments in the battery. The Self-Determination Knowledge Scale (forms A and B) (Hoffman, Field, & Sawilowsky, 1996) is a multiple-choice and true/false format instrument designed to assess students' cognitive knowledge of self-determination skills as taught in the Steps to Self-Determination(Field & Hoffinan, 1996) curriculum. The Self-Determination Observation Checklist is a 38-item behavioral checklist designed to be used by classroom teachers. Students are observed over a class period, and behaviors that have been found to be correlated with self-determination are checked. The Self-Determination Student Scale is a 92-item self-report instrument completed by the student that measures both affective and cognitive aspects of self-determination. The items contain a brief stimulus, to which the student marks "That's me" or "That's not me." The Teacher Perception Scale and the Parent Perception Scale are 30-item questionnaires on which teachers or parents rate their student or child on a fivepoint Likert-type scale on a variety of behaviors, abilities, and skills associated with self-determination. The instruments in the battery can be used separately or together to assess student variables associated with self-determination. Further information about the Self-Determination Knowledge Scale can be obtained from Pro-Ed, 8700 Shoal Creek Boulevard, Austin, TX 78757-6897. Telephone: 512/451-3246. It is also available from The Council for Exceptional Children. Telephone: 888/232-7733. Information about the Self-Determination Assessment Battery is available from the Self-Determination and Transition Projects Office, 469 Education Building, College of Education, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202. Telephone: 313/577-8342 or email@example.com.
The Self-Determination Profile: An Assessment Package. This package (Curtis, 1996) is one of the New Hats curriculum sets designed to help youth and adults determine their preferences, activities, relationships and routines as they are now as well as into the future. Students use cart decks composed of illustrations to show what their life is now like and what they would like to do in the future. Various summary sheets are provided for student use, along with facilitator instructions. The Self-Determination Profile: An Assessment Package is available from New Hats Inc., P.O. Box 57567, Salt Lake City, UT 84157. Telephone: 435/259-9400
From: Field, S., Martin, J., Miller, R., Ward, M., & Wehmeyer, M. (1998). A Practical Guide for Teaching Self-Determination . Reston, VA: Council for Exceptional Children.